“Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help;…but they look not unto the Holy One of Israel”

Once again as in past history, Israel has “gone down to Egypt” for aid rather than seeking aid from the God of their forefathers. They have turned their backs on God and seek to establish an earthly kingdom despite God. This is open opposition to the Kingdom of God and Christ’ authority as its ruler.

Ancient Israel called on the Egyptians even though they as a people had suffered nearly 400 years of forced slavery by the Egyptians. They returned and asked them for aid against a common enemy.

Today, the United States plays the role of ‘Egypt’ as the Jews seek its aid and the aid of other godless nations for the purpose of establishing an earthly kingdom contrary to the will of God. It is an antichrist ambition. While so-called “Christian-Zionist” claim this is in honor of Christ, there is no connection or even mention of Jesus Christ by the leaders of Israel. They have denied Christ to be the Messiah and prefer secular rule. Yet, “Christian-Zionist” support them anyway.

It will not succeed. Almighty God stands against it.

His warning to the Israelites recorded in the Bible in Isaiah Chapter 31 applies even more so today:

Isaiah 31:1-9

31 “Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help; and stay on horses, and trust in chariots, because they are many; and in horsemen, because they are very strong; but they look not unto the Holy One of Israel, neither seek the Lord!”

2 “Yet he also is wise, and will bring evil, and will not call back his words: but will arise against the house of the evildoers, and against the help of them that work iniquity.”

3 “Now the Egyptians are men, and not God; and their horses flesh, and not spirit. When the Lord shall stretch out his hand, both he that helpeth shall fall, and he that is holpen shall fall down, and they all shall fail together.”

4 “For thus hath the Lord spoken unto me, Like as the lion and the young lion roaring on his prey, when a multitude of shepherds is called forth against him, he will not be afraid of their voice, nor abase himself for the noise of them: so shall the Lord of hosts come down to fight for mount Zion, and for the hill thereof.”

5 “As birds flying, so will the Lord of hosts defend Jerusalem; defending also he will deliver it; and passing over he will preserve it.”

6 “Turn ye unto him from whom the children of Israel have deeply revolted.”

7 “For in that day every man shall cast away his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which your own hands have made unto you for a sin.”

8 “Then shall the Assyrian fall with the sword, not of a mighty man; and the sword, not of a mean man, shall devour him: but he shall flee from the sword, and his young men shall be discomfited.”

9 “And he shall pass over to his strong hold for fear, and his princes shall be afraid of the ensign, saith the Lord, whose fire is in Zion, and his furnace in Jerusalem.”

Egypt was not able to circumvent the will of God and calling on the United States will not thwart God’s will or purpose today.

God has a Kingdom and it is a heavenly not an earthly kingdom with Jesus as Lord.

They should heed the words God spoke to the prophet Jeremiah:

Jeremiah 17:5

“Thus saith the Lord; Cursed be the man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart departeth from the Lord.”

This ‘earthly’ kingdom opposes the ‘true’ Kingdom of God as is therefore anti-Christ in its nature.

Jeremiah 4:1,2
“If you return, Israel— this is the Lord’s declaration— you will return to Me, if you remove your detestable idols from
2 then you can swear, “As the Lord lives,” in truth, in justice, and in righteousness, then the nations will be blessed by Him and will pride themselves in Him”.

Ritual Cleansing – Water Baptism

A Jewish man called Yochanan (John the Baptizer) was baptizing people in the Jordan River in first century Israel, including his cousin who would later become world famous: Yeshua of Nazareth (Jesus of Nazareth)

Water Baptism-Ritual Cleansing

Did John the Baptizer Invent Baptism? When, how, and why was the practice begun?

A Jewish man called Yochanan (John the Baptizer) was baptizing people in the Jordan River in first century Israel, including his cousin who would later become world-famous: Yeshua of Nazareth (Jesus of Nazareth).

Many Jewish people responded to the call of this Jewish man to immerse themselves in the river as a sign of repentance, and a desire to get right with God. Some of the Pharisees were also among them. Did Yochanan (John the Baptizer) invent baptism at this time? Or was it part of Jewish tradition and practice before that?

No he didn’t, and yes it was.

And the Hebrew word for an immersion pool built for this purpose, “mikveh”, also points us in the right direction in understanding deeper meaning in the practice.

Immersion in Jewish Tradition

The Jewish laws which had been passed down orally from generation to generation had several things to say about the need for ritual washing, and the most desirable places to do it. There are six different options suggested that satisfy the requirements, starting with pits or cisterns of standing water as acceptable but least desirable, moving up to pits that are refreshed by rainwater as slightly more desirable, then the custom-built ritual bath, or “mikveh” with 40 se’ahs (300 liters) or more of water, then fountains, then flowing waters.

But “living waters” (as found in natural lakes and rivers) which were considered to be the best possible situation.

The Mishnah specifies what makes the water clean or unclean, and expresses a preference for a larger, fresher body of water, “For in it persons may immerse themselves and immerse others”.

So Yochanan (John the Baptizer) immersing people in the “Living waters” of the River Jordan was perfectly within Jewish law and practice at the time.

The Essenes, a strict Jewish sect, were doing it too out in the Judean Desert. But why were Jewish people immersing themselves in water? Is baptism in the Jewish Scriptures? Well, sort of, yes.

Ritual Bathing in the Bible

“Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying: You shall also make a laver of bronze, with its base also of bronze, for washing. You shall put it between the tabernacle of meeting and the altar. And you shall put water in it, for Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet in water from it. When they go into the tabernacle of meeting, or when they come near the altar to minister, to burn an offering made by fire to the LORD, they shall wash with water, lest they die. So they shall wash their hands and their feet, lest they die. And it shall be a statute forever to them– to him and his descendants throughout their generations.” Exod 30:17-21

The priests had to be ritually clean (tahor) in order to serve at the tabernacle, and Israelites who had become ritually unclean (tamay) had to restore their situation with the passing of time and bathing their whole body in fresh, ritually clean (tahor) water, according to Leviticus 15.

Later, when the temple had been built, it was necessary for everyone to be immersed in a mikveh to become ritually clean before entering the temple. There are many ancient mikva’ot (plural of mikveh) to be seen in Jerusalem, and it is clear to see the two sets of steps for each one – a set of steps going down to the mikveh in an impure (tamay) state on one side, and on the other side, steps where the pilgrim will emerge fresh and ritually clean (tahor).

What did it look like in the time of Jesus?

Following the upheaval of the 1967 war, archaeologists were presented with the opportunity to excavate parts of the upper city of Jerusalem, giving a new window into daily life in ancient times. Many of the houses were grand and spacious, with their own water cisterns and ritual baths in the basements.[2] Some houses were found to have had several of these mikva’ot, since it is thought that as well as providing for the household (which could even be up to fifty people) they would have been able to welcome and host pilgrims arriving for the Jewish feasts, catering for many more. Many of this upper city aristocracy were among the priestly class, who would have to stay in a state of ritual purity as much as possible, and so would have to immerse themselves in a mikveh frequently. Archaeologists also believe that the pools of Siloam and Bethsaida could have been used for ritual bathing in the Second Temple period for those visiting Jerusalem for the high holy days.

So immersion in a mikveh was quite common at the time of Yeshua, but the New Testament also describes baptisms taking place not only in rivers, but in any available body of water. In Acts 8, we read of a visiting pilgrim from Ethiopia, who came to believe in Yeshua as he read Isaiah on the way home:

“As they traveled along the road, they came to some water and the eunuch said, “Look, here is water. What can stand in the way of my being baptized?” (verse 36).

By this point baptism had come to signify a decision to accept Yeshua as Messiah and Lord.

The word “Mikveh”

The Hebrew noun for a ritual bath (mikveh) can help us understand a bit more about the Jewish notion of immersion. Often the Hebrew language reveals keys in the Hebrew thought behind the words. The word mikveh shares the same root as the word for hope (tikvah), for line (kav) and alignment, and the concept of hoping or waiting on God (kiviti l’Adonai).

Here is what Strong’s Lexicon has to say about the word:

מִקְוֶה miqveh, mik-veh’;
something waited for, i.e. confidence (objective or subjective);
also a collection, i.e. (of water) a pond, or (of men and horses) a caravan or drove:—abiding, gathering together, hope, linen yarn, plenty (of water), pool.
and the same root word:

קָוָה qâvâh, kaw-vaw’;
to bind together (perhaps by twisting), i.e. collect; (figuratively) to expect:—gather (together), look, patiently, tarry, wait (for, on, upon).

The ideas of binding together, or twisting together, of yarn, gives us a good mental picture of what it means to align ourselves with God, and wait for him. We gather ourselves and bind ourselves to his word and to him, we line ourselves up with him, and wait for him in confidence and hope. When you read that the Psalmist says he waits upon the Lord, this is usually the word he is using.

The linked concepts of mikvah (collected pool of water) and tikvah (hope, confidence) are played out beautifully in Jeremiah 17:5-6, where the prophet poetically expresses the ideas through the metaphor of trees either rooted and flourishing beside water when we trust in God, or drying up for the lack of water when we put our trust in man. A few verses later, Jeremiah summarises:

Lord, you are the hope (mikveh) of Israel; all who forsake you will be ashamed (or dried out).

Those who turn away from you will be written in the dust because they have forsaken the Lord, the spring of living water.

This is a word play – the text actually says “The Lord is the MIKVEH of Israel, and all who forsake him will be ashamed or dried out!” So it makes more sense now that Jeremiah continues, to say that when we turn away from this mikveh of water and hope, we will be ashamed, which can also be translated “dried out”. Through this word play, Jeremiah deliberately points us back to the analogy of the man who trusts in God being like a tree beside plenty of water, and the one who leaves God ending up in dry, dusty shame.

A “Mikveh” of living water represents the bounty and resources of the new life that we can enjoy in God. Those who put their hope in God, choosing to align their lives with him, will never be dried out, but will always have fresh life in him.

Next time you see someone being immersed in water to signify their new life in Yeshua, the hope of Israel, the mikveh of Israel, call to mind all that he said about being the water of life, the well of living water that springs up to eternal life… because that’s exactly who He is!

[1] Tractate Mivaoth, Babylonian Talmud, Mishnah 1-8

There are six degrees of gatherings of water, each superior to the other.

The water of pits… The same rules apply to the water of pits, the water of cisterns, the water of ditches, the water of caverns, the water of rain drippings which have stopped, and mikwehs of less than forty se’ahs: they are all clean during the time of rain; when the rain has stopped those near to a city or to a road are unclean, and those distant remain clean until the majority of people pass [that way].

Superior to such [water] is the water of rain drippings which have not stopped.

Superior to such [water] is [the water of] the mikveh containing forty se’ahs, for in it persons may immerse themselves and immerse others.

Superior again is [the water of] a fountain whose own water is little but has been increased by a greater quantity of drawn water; it is equivalent to the mikveh inasmuch as it may render clean by standing water, and to an [ordinary] fountain in as much as one may immerse in it whatever the quantity of its contents.

Superior again are ‘smitten waters’ which can render clean even when flowing.

Superior again are ‘living waters’ which serve for the immersion of persons who have a running issue and for the sprinkling of lepers, and are valid for the preparation of the water of purification.

Reference: https://www.oneforisrael.org/…/was-baptism-originally-jewi…/

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Studying and Learning the Priesthood of God

“You are to be holy to Me because I, Yahweh, am holy, and I have set you apart from the nations to be Mine”? Leviticus 20:26
Holiness is not merely a spiritual state. Spirituality can be rooted in unholiness. Holiness is keep ones self separate in order to serve in behalf of other.

Studying The Priesthood of God

What did God mean when he said concerning His priesthood, “You are to be holy to Me because I, Yahweh, am holy, and I have set you apart from the nations to be Mine”? Leviticus 20:26

What did Peter mean when counseling first century anointed disciples, “But as the One who called you is holy, you also are to be holy in all your conduct; for it is written, Be holy, because I am holy.” 1Peter 1:15,16

What is the difference between ‘spirituality’ and ‘holiness’?

reference: http://www.templeinstitute.org/red_heifer/levitical_priests.htm

The Levitical Priests:

Reaching levels of inspiration and revelation that are not rooted in holiness, as personified by the wicked heathen prophet Balaam, King Balak, and the elders of Moab and Midian, are all equally reprehensible (these practiced various forms of divination and occult arts in order to bring about prophetic revelation.

Their Function and Role in the Holy Temple

“And it shall be for them an appointment as priests forever, for all generations.” (Ex. 40:15)
“For the Lord your God has chosen him out of all your tribes, to stand to serve in the name of the Lord, him and his sons forever.” (Deut. 18:5)

Who are the Priests?

The first kohen, the founder of the priestly clan, was Aaron, brother of Moses, of the tribe of Levi. All of Israel are descended from the twelve sons of Jacob. Jacob’s third son was Levi, and Aaron was a fourth generation descendant of Levi.

Aaron and his four sons were designated as the first priests; Aaron served as the first High Priest. All of his male descendants were chosen by God to be priests forever; it is an eternal covenant. Thus even today, a kohen amongst the Jewish people is genealogically a direct descendant of Aaron.

The Role of the Priests

The Holy One chose these men to be in a position of spiritual leadership. In the days of the Temple, they were responsible for the sacred service. The Hebrew word kohen actually means “to serve,” and a deeper linguistic connection can be found in the word ken, meaning “yes,” itself related to kivvun, “to direct.” Thus a kohen is called upon to direct himself, and others, in the proper service of God: “And you, separate your brother Aaron and his sons from among the Israelites, and bring them close to you… so they can serve me.” (Ex. 28:1)

A Conduit for the Reception of Divine Blessing

The reader is undoubtedly most familiar with the primary role which the priests perform in the Temple, that of officiating at the sacrifices and other parts of the service. But more importantly, by attending to the various aspects of the Divine service, the priests serve as a conduit to bring down God’s radiant blessing and influence into this world. In fact, it is on this account that they are commanded to deliver God’s blessing of peace and love to the people, as well: “Say to Aaron and his sons… Thus shall you bless the people of Israel: ‘May the Lord bless you and protect you. May the Lord shine His face upon you, and be gracious unto you. May the Lord lift up His face to you and may He grant you peace’.” (Numbers 6:22 – 26)

The Priestly Blessing is Delivered Daily in the Temple

Every day in the Temple, at the conclusion of the morning service, this blessing was performed by the officiating priests, standing on the steps leading up to the sanctuary. Thus while it is only God who has the power to bestow blessing upon people, the function of the priests was to serve as a vehicle, a medium, through which the Divine influence may descend.

“… He stands behind our wall… “

This concept of the priests “directing” the flow of Divine blessing is alluded to by a verse in the Song of Songs (2:9 – 10): “Behold, He stands behind our wall, watching through the windows, glancing through the cracks.”

The sages of the Midrash interpret these words to mean that it is God who stands behind the priests as they deliver His blessing. The illumination of His Presence shines through their hands, which are outstretched as they utter the priestly blessing.

The Priests Possess Special Qualities

The priests represent kindness, and the focusing of life’s energies on sanctity and Divine purpose. It was the attribute of kindness, understanding and love for all which Aaron, the first High Priest, was best known for, and his descendants are entrusted to exemplify Hillel’s famous dictum in the Chapters of the Fathers (Avot 1:12): “Be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving your fellow-creatures, and drawing them near to the Torah.” This quality was highly visible and crucially instrumental following the rebellion of Korach, when it was Aaron who saved the people from the full extent of Divine wrath (see Numbers 17).

Because of their ability to invoke Heavenly influence, the sages even record that the priestly families possess distinctive character traits and qualities which are part of their special spiritual heritage: they are known to be joyful, giving, and driven by a loftier nature. In the era of the Temple, they were praised for their zeal and dedication to fulfill the commandments and give honor to the Creator.

Later, through the ensuing course of history, it was generally the tribe of Levi and the priestly family in particular that were exemplary in their zealousness for the honor of God. Thus it was the priestly family of the Hasmonaim – the famous “Maccabees” – who led the revolt against foreign idolatrous influence and rededicated the Holy Temple, events marked by the holiday of Chanukah.

The daily blessing of the priests in the Temple serves to open the Heavenly gates of mercy. Through it, the people of Israel merit not only material well-being – including offspring and longevity – but spiritual blessings as well; mercy, Divine protection and the greatest blessing of all… true peace. Since the priests themselves represent the attribute of kindness, their service brings the flow of God’s blessing down to His people.

General Rules of Priestly Conduct

The priest must be holy to his God. You must keep him holy, for he presents the offering to your God… He must be holy, for I am God – I am holy and I am making you holy” (Lev. 21).

God Has Sanctified The Priests Above All Men

The Holy One ordained special laws which effect the lives of the priests. The fundamental understanding behind these principles is that the status of the priest is different than that of other men. Their lot is one of dedication, of separation – for they are the servants of the Lord, and the custodians of His service. “… For he presents the offering to your God… ”

Because of this, “… he must be holy, for I am God – I am holy and I am making you holy.” The Creator has sanctified these men above the rest for all time, and drawn them to Himself through unique commandments.


These laws are recorded in the book of Leviticus, and by way of an introduction, let us examine the verse quoted above. The priests are expected and commanded to keep holy… but what is meant by “holiness?” What is the Bible’s intention?

“He must be holy, for I, God, am holy.” How are we to understand this state of holiness? How can we best explain such a concept? It seems intangible at best – for in the context of this verse, it seems that the priest is called upon to be holy in the same sense that God Himself is holy.

It would surely be instructive at this point for us to attempt a definition for the word “holy.” For we can see that the Bible uses this word quite emphatically in the context of the priests: they are actually mandated to be holy, to lead holy lives, because God is holy. But how can a person be holy like God?

Many people seem to equate the concept of holiness with spirituality in general; anything ethereal or mystical is presumed to be holy. According to this mentality, one supposes that holiness is a matter of secret knowledge, or simply a question of allegiance to any proscribed ritual claimed by its adherents to bring the devotee closer to fulfillment.

To Be Spiritual Does Not Automatically Imply Holiness

This is a serious misconception, one which is completely out of tune with the Biblical idea of holiness as exemplified by the “holiness” which is expected and required of Aaron’s descendants. For holy and spiritual are not the same things and they are certainly not equal.

Consulting Webster’s Dictionary, we find that the word “spiritual” is derived from the Latin spiritualis, “of breathing; of wind; relating to or consisting of spirit.” Thus: “INCORPOREAL,” (fortunately, we are also given “of or relating to sacred matters,”) and since the primary meaning of this word seems to be that which is non-physical, we end with “of or relating to ghosts or similar supernatural beings(!)”

Thus many people, disciplines, philosophies and the like may be considered spiritual in nature, they may concern themselves with the esoteric, they may even occupy themselves with the service of God – but this does not necessarily imply that they are holy in any way.

Forbidden Spiritual Pursuits

In fact, some spiritual paths can most definitely be the absolute epitome of unholiness:

The Bible is clear in its prohibition of spiritualism which has not been authorized by God. “Do not act on the basis of omens… do not act on the basis of auspicious times” (Lev. 19:26), we are warned. These forbidden practices include one who acts on the basis of a superstitious omen, and those who seek out auspicious times through astrology.

When the Children of Israel were preparing to end their desert wanderings and enter into the Promised Land, they were specifically warned by God to uproot the perverted spiritual practices of the former inhabitants from the land, and to be particularly cautious not to be tempted to experiment with mystical occult practices. “When the Lord your God excises the nations to which you are coming, and drives them away before you, you shall dispossess them and live in their land. Be very careful not to fall into a trap by following after them, after they have been wiped out from before you. Do not try to find out about their gods, saying, ‘How did these nations worship their gods? I would also like to try this.’ Do not worship the Lord your God with such practices. In worshipping their gods, these nations committed all manner of perversions hated by the Lord… ” (Deut. 12:29 – 31).

Reaching levels of inspiration and revelation that are not rooted in holiness, as personified by the wicked heathen prophet Balaam, King Balak, and the elders of Moab and Midian, are all equally reprehensible (these practiced various forms of divination and occult arts in order to bring about prophetic revelation. See Numbers 22).

So, while other nations may have their own routes to connect with the “Divine,” or their own conception thereof; or, perhaps they merely delude themselves and others into thinking that they are serving God, and the side of holiness – clearly, the Torah’s prohibitions instruct Israel that these other ways are not for her. There may be other paths of spirituality, but they are not for Israel; she is to be “a kingdom of priests and a holy nation” (Ex. 19:6).

But we have not yet come any closer to an understanding of the priests’ exhortation to live holy lives “because God is holy;” neither have we come any closer to a grasp on how an individual can be holy like God. If God is incorporeal, if God is spirit, is a man therefore commanded to be spirit? Spirituality is clearly a separate concept, and one that is not necessarily pure, at that.

Holiness Means Separation

By contrast to the concept of “spiritual” – which seems to be rather unstable for our liking, since it can actually apply to things quite far from all which we have considered sacred – we find that the primary definition of “holy” is “set apart to the service of God.”

God Himself is called holy because He is completely separate; unique and unequaled in all of His creation. Nothing can be compared to Him because He is peerless; He is the Creator of the universe and all existence, and absolutely different from anything else that exists. It is in this light that Israel is collectively called upon to be a “holy nation” – that is, a nation set apart from all others, completely different from any other, whose Divinely-mandated lifestyle serves as living proof that an entire nation can walk with God in its midst… “it is a nation dwelling alone in peace; not counting itself among other nations” (Numbers 23:9).

This separation is the true Biblical view of holiness. This is why the opposite of something holy is said to be mundane or profane; ordinary. To be holy is to be removed from the realm of the ordinary. Israel lives separately, according to the Torah’s commandments, precisely because God is separate… for the highest form of religious experience is to reflect, to imitate the Divine. Man must strive to be a reflection of his Creator.

So too, the priests in the Holy Temple “must be holy for I, God, am holy.” If Jewish life is to be holy, then the priests must take care to be especially holy. They have been distinctively sanctified by the Creator Himself for all time and singled out for a life dedicated to Him. The vehicle that accomplishes this sanctification is the commandments, which obligate them to their Creator. These commandments reflect their unique status.

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Are You Being Prepared For God’s Priesthood?

Serving in the priesthood of God requires complete devotion to learning its discipline and order.

For anyone to seriously consider themselves chosen to serve as a priest under High Priest Jesus Christ, they should be eager to learn about what it is a priest does. The only method to understand what God and Christ expect is by examining the pattern of the priesthood God established as His example of what is required.

It is reasonable to believe that anyone with that prospect held before them would be consumed with gaining and growing in an understanding of what the role is about and its disciplines. All called to the priesthood in God’s arrangement with Israel were both well-trained and well-disciplined in proper ritual conduct.

The following article from the Jewish Encyclopedia offers insight into understanding the life and service functions of a priest of God.

Laymen as Priests-The Priestly Code


—Biblical Data:
One consecrated to the service of the sanctuary and, more particularly, of the altar. This definition, however, holds true rather for the later than for the earlier stages of Hebrew priesthood. In ancient Israel one was not required to be specially consecrated in order to perform the sacrificial functions; any one might approach the altar and offer sacrifices. Thus Gideon, of the tribe of Manasseh (Judges vi. 26 et seq.), and the Danite Manoah (ib. xiii. 16, 19) sacrificed in person at the express command of God and the angel of God respectively; similarly, David sacrificed on the altar he had built at God’s command on the thrashing-floor of Araunah (II Sam. xxiv. 25); and Solomon, before the ark in Jerusalem (I Kings iii. 15). David, on the occasion of the transference of the Ark to Zion, and Solomon, at the dedication of the Temple of Jerusalem, ministered as priests (II Sam. vi. 14, 17, 18;. I Kings viii. 22, 54 el seq.); the latter continued to personally offer sacrifices on the altar of Yhwh at regular intervals (I Kings ix. 25). Similar instances, in later times, are presented by Elijah, sacrificing on Mount Carmel (I Kings xviii. 32 et seq.), and by Ahaz, in the Temple at Jerusalem (II Kings xvi. 12 et seq.).

In accordance with this usage in ancient Israel, the ordinances contained in the Book of the Covenant, the oldest code, concerning the building of altars and the offering of sacrifices are addressed not to the priest, but to the people at large (Ex. xx. 24-26). Even where there was a sanctuary with a priesthood, as at Shiloh, any layman might slaughter and offer his sacrifices without priestly aid (comp. I Sam. ii. 13-16). As access to the altar was not yet guarded in accordance with later Levitical ordinances, so the priesthood was not yet confined to one family, or even to one tribe. The Ephraimite Samuel became priest of the sanctuary at Shiloh, wearing the priestly linen coat (“efod bad”) and the pallium (I Sam. ii. 18 et seq., iii. 1). The kings of Israel ordained as priest whomever they chose (I Kings xli. 31); David, too, invested his own sons, as well as the Jairite Ira, of the tribe of Manasseh, with the priestly office (II Sam. viii. 18, xx. 26).

Functions of the Priest.
If a distinct established priesthood is nevertheless found at the sanctuary of Shiloh and at that of Dan as early as the time of the Judges, it is obvious that its real office can not have been connected with the altar or the sacrifices, and that, consequently, its origin can not be looked for in the sacrificial functions. Wherein the origin of the Israelitish priest-hood really lies is sufficiently apparent from the older Biblical records of the time of the Judges and the following period. According to these, the functions of the priest were twofold: to care for and guard the sanctuary and its sacred images and palladia, and (of still greater importance) to consult the oracle. Thus the Ephraimite Micah, after having provided an ephod and teraphim (see Ephod) for his shrine, installed one of his sons as priest to take care of them, but only until he could secure a professional priest, a Levite, for the purpose, one who was qualified to consult the oracle (Judges xvii. 5-13). (a mediator with God)

It is evident that not the shrine, but the images it sheltered, were the essential thing. These it was that the migrating Danites coveted and carried off to their new home, together with the priest, who had consulted the oracle in behalf of their exploring party with auspicious results (ib. xviii.). The sacred palladium of the sanctuary at Shiloh was the ARK, over which the sons of Eli and Samuel kept guard. The former carried it when it was taken to the battle-field, while the latter, having special charge of the doors, slept nightly near it (I Sam, iii. 3, 15; iv. 4 et seq.). When, later, the ark was returned from the field of the Philistines and brought to the house of Abinadab at Kirjath-jearim, Abinadab’s son Eleazar was at once consecrated guardian over it (ib. vii. 1). The bearing of the ark, with which, at Shiloh, the sons of Eli were entrusted, remained, as the frequent statements to this effect in later Biblical literature show, a specific priestly function throughout pre-exilic times (comp. Deut. x. 8, xxxi. 9; Josh. iii. 6 et seq., iv. 9 et seq., vi. 12, viii. 33; I Kings viii. 3). After the capture of its ark by the Philistines the sanctuary of Shiloh disappeared from history (its destruction is referred to in Jer. vii. 12, 14; xxvi. 6); its priesthood, however, appeared in the following period at the sanctuary of Nob, which also had an ephod (I Sam. xiv. 3; xxi. 1, 10; xxii. 9, 11).

After the massacre of the priesthood of Nob, Abiathar, who was the sole survivor, fied with the ephod to David (ib. xxiii. 6), whom thenceforward he accompanied on all his military expeditions, bearing the ephod in order to consult the oracle for him whenever occasion demanded (ib. xxiii. 9, xxx. 7). Similarly, in the campaign against the Philistines, Ahiah accompanied Saul and the Israclites, “bearing the ephod” and ascertaining for them the decisions of the oracle (ib. xiv. 3, 18, the latter verse being so read by the LXX.). The priests’ duty of guarding the sanctuary and its sacred contents accounts for the use, in pre-exilic times, of “shomer hasaf,””doorkeeper” (corresponding to the Arabic “sadin”), as synonymous with “kohen” (II Kings xii. 10), and explains also how “shamar” and “sheret” became the technical terms of priestly service and were retained as such even after the nature of the service had materially changed.

To fill the office of doorkeeper no special qualification was necessary, but, as hinted above, to consult the oracle required special training, such as, no doubt, could be found only among professional priests. So, though the doorkeepers were in many cases not of priestly lineage (comp., besides the case of Samuel and of Eleazar of Kirjath-jearim, that of Obededom; II Sam. vi. 10 et seq.), those who consulted the oracle were invariably of priestly descent, a fact which makes it seem highly probable that the art of using and interpreting the oracle was handed down from father to son. In this way, no doubt, hereditary priesthood developed, as indicated by the cases of the sons of Eli at Shiloh and Nob, and of Jonathan and his descendants at Dan, both these priestly houses extending back to the very beginning of Israelitish history. The descendants of Jonathan made express claim to lineal descent from Moses (comp. I Sam. ii. 27; Judges xviii. 30; the reading “Menashshch” in Judges xviii. 30 is, as the suspended נ shows, due to a later change of the original “Mosheh,” a change which is frankly acknowledged in B. B. 109b; comp. also Rashi and Ḳimḥi ad loc., and to ib. xvii. 7); in fact, their claim is supported by Ex. xxxiii. 7-11, according to which not Aaron, but Moses, was the priest of the “tent of meeting” (R. V.) in the wilderness, while Joshua kept constant guard over it.

Interpreters of the Law.
“Whosoever had to consult God went out to the tent of meeting,” where Moses ascertained the will of God; and just as Moses, in his capacity of priest, was the intermediary through whom Yhwh revealed the Torah to the Israelites in the wilderness, and through whom His judgment was invoked in all difficult cases, such as could not be adjusted without reference to this highest tribunal (Ex. xviii. 16 et seq.), so the priests, down to the close of pre-exilic times, were the authoritative interpreters of the Law, while the sanctuaries were the seats of judgment.

Thus the Book of the Covenant prescribes that all dubious criminal cases “be brought before God,” that is, be referred to Him by the priest for decision (Ex. xxii.7, 8). That “Elohim” here means “God” (not, as the A. V. translates, “the judges”) is clear from I Sam. xiv. 36, where the same phrase, “niḳrab el Elohim” is applied to consulting the oracle by means of the Urim and Thummim (comp. the following verses, 37-42, the last two verses as read by the LXX.). The urim and thummim were employed together with the ephod in consulting the oracle, the former, as may be inferred from the description in I Sam. xiv. 41, 42, being a kind of sacred lots: in all probability they were cast before the ephod. Josh. vii. 14 and I Sam. ii. 25 may be cited in further proof of the fact that direct appeal to divine judgment was made in ancient Israel. This primitive custom is reflected even in as late a passage as Prov. xviii. 18. The Blessing of Moses proves that the sacred lots continued to be cast by the priests during the time of the monarchy, inasmuch as it speaks of the urim and thummim as insignia of the priesthood (Deut. xxxiii. 8). This document shows, as does also the Deuteronomic code, that throughout pre-exilic times the expounding of the Torah and the administration of justice remained the specific functions of the priests. It declares that the priests are the guardians of God’s teachings and Law, and that it is their mission to teach God’s judgments and Torah to Israel (Deut. xxxiii. 9, 10), while the Deuteronomic code decrees that all difficult criminal as well as civil cases be referred to the priests (ib. xvii. 8-11, xxi. 5). Further proof to the same effect lies in the frequent references of the Prophets to the judicial and teaching functions of the priesthood (comp. Amos ii. 8; Hos. iv. 6; Isa. xxviii. 7; Micah iii. 11; Jer. ii. 8, xviii. 18; Ezek. vii. 26).

Offering of the Sacrifices.
In addition to the duties thus far discussed, the offering of sacrifices, in the time of the monarchy, must have become the office of the priest, since the Blessing of Moses mentions it with the other priestly functions. No direct information is obtainable from the Biblical records as to the conditions and influences which brought this about, but it may be safely assumed that one of the factors leading thereto was the rise of the royal sanctuaries. In these, daily public sacrifices were maintained by the king (comp. II Kings xvi. 15), and it must certainly have been the business of the priests to attend to them. There is evidence also that among the priests of Jerusalem there were, at least in later pre-exilic times, gradations of rank. Besides the “chief priest” (“kohen ha-rosh”) mention is made of the “kohen mishnch,” the one holding the second place (II Kings xxv. 18 et al.).

As yet, however, it seems apparent that the priest-hood was not confined to one particular branch of the family of Levi, but, as both the Blessing of Moses and the Deuteronomic code state, was the heritage of the whole tribe (comp. Deut. x. 8, 9; xviii. 1 et seq., 5; xxxiii. 8-10; Josh. xviii, 7). This explains why, in the Deuteronomic code, the whole tribe of Levi has a claim to the altar-gifts, the first-fruits, and the like, and to the dues in kind from private sacrifices (Deut. xviii. 1-5), while in Ezekiel and the Priestly Code the Levites have no share therein. It explains also how it comes that, not only in Judges xvii. (see above), but throughout pre-exilic literature, the terms “Levite” and “priest” are used synonymously (comp. Deut. xvii. 9, 18; xviii. 1; xxi. 8; xxiv. 8; xxvii. 9; Josh. iii. 3; Jer. xxxiii. 18, 21: the only exception is I Kings viii. 4, where, however, as the parallel text, H Chron. v. 5, shows, the ו of is a later insertion).

Levites and Priests.
Since, in pre-exilic times, the whole tribe of Levi was chosen “to stand before Yhwh in order to minister unto Him,” It is but consistent that the office “of blessing in Yhwh’s name” (which in the Priestly Code is assigned to Aaron and his sons—Num. vi. 23) should, in the Deuteronomic code, pertain to all the Levites (comp. Deut. x. 8, xxi. 8). A very strong proof that all membersof the Levitical tribe were entitled to priesthood is furnished in the provision which was made by the Deuteronomic code for those Levites who were scattered through the country as priests of the local sanctuaries, and who, in consequence of the Deuteronomic reformation, had been left without any means of support. It stipulated that those Levites who desired to enter the ranks of the priesthood of Jerusalem should be admitted to equal privileges with their brethren the Levites who ministered there unto God, and should share equally with them the priestly revenues (Deut. xviii. 6-8). As a matter of fact, however, this provision was not carried out. The priests of Jerusalem were not willing to accord to their brethren of the local sanctuaries the privileges prescribed by Deuteronomy, and although they granted them support from the priestly dues, they did not allow them to minister at the altar (comp. II Kings xxiii. 8, 9). In this way the Deuteronomic reformation marks, after all, the first step toward the new development in the priesthood in exilic and post-exilic times.

The attitude of the priests of Jerusalem toward those of the local sanctuaries was sanctioned by Ezekiel. In his book (and later in II Chron. xxxi. 10) the priesthood of Jerusalem is called “bene Ẓadoḳ” or “the house of Zadok,” after Zadok, who replaced Abiathar, Eli’s descendant, when Abiathar, because of his partizanship for Adonijah, was deposed by Solomon (comp. I Kings ii. 27, 35). Ezekiel ordained that of all the Levite priests only the Zadokites, who had ministered to God in His legitimate sanctuary at Jerusalem, should be admitted to the service of the altar; the rest, who had defiled themselves by officiating at the local sanctuaries, should be degraded to the position of mere servants in the sanctuary, replacing the foreign Temple attendants who had heretofore performed all menial services (Ezek. xl. 46, xliii. 19, xliv. 6-16). Naturally, the altar-gifts, the tribute of the first-fruits, and the like, were to be awarded thenceforward to the Zadokites alone (xliv. 29, 30). Though Ezekiel assigns to the priests the duty of sitting in judgment in legal disputes, as before (xliv. 24), he makes their ritual functions, not their judicial functions, the essential point in his regulations governing the priests. Administering the Law, according to him, extends only to matters of ritual, to the distinctions between holy and profane, clean and unclean, and to the statutory observance of Sabbaths and festivals (xliv. 23, 24).

The Priestly Code.
Ezekiel’s new regulations formed, in all essentials, the basis of the post-exilic priestly system which is formulated in detail in the Priestly Code. A striking difference between Ezekiel and the Priestly Code, however, is at once evident in that the latter betrays no idea of the historical development of things. Whereas Ezekiel records the old usage and, by virtue of his authority as a prophet, declares it abolished, the Priestly Code recognizes only the new order of things introduced by Ezekiel, which order it dates back to the time of Moses, alleging that from the very first the priest-hood had been confined to Aaron and his sons, while the mass of the Levites had been set apart as their ministers to fill the subordinate offices of the sanctuary (comp. Ex. xxviii. 1; Num. i. 48 et seq.; iii. 3-10; viii. 14, 19, 24-26; xviii. 1-7; I Chron. vi. 33 et seq.). The priestly genealogy of I Chron. v. 29-41 and vi. 35-38 was but the logical result of this transference of post-exilic conditions back to the period of the wandering in the wilderness. This genealogy, the purpose of which was to establish the legitimacy of the Zadokite priesthood, represents the Zadokites as the lineal descendants of Phinehas (the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron), who, for his meritorious action in the case of Zimri, according to Num. xxv. 10-13, had been promised the priesthood as a lasting heritage. That this genealogy and that of I Chron. xxiv. 1-6, in which the descent of the Elite Abiathar is traced from Aaron’s son Ithamar, are fictitious is evident from the fact that they conflict with the authentic records of the books of Samuel and Kings: (1) they know nothing of the priesthood of Eli; (2) Ahitub, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli, and father of Ahimelech of Nob (comp. I Sam. xiv. 3; xxii. 9, 11), appears in them as the son of an unknown Amariah and the father of Zadok; (3) contrary to I Kings ii. 27, 35 (see above), Abiathar and his descendants remain priests at the Temple of Jerusalem.

The Priestly Orders.
Regarding the characteristic attribution of postexilic conditions to pre-exilic times, a notable example may be pointed out in Chron. xxiii.-xxvi. Both priests and Levites were, in post-exilic times, divided into twenty-four families or classes, with a chief (called “rosh” or “sar”; comp. especially I Chron. xv. 4-12; xxiii. 8 et seq.; xxiv. 5, 6, 31; Ezra viii. 29) at the head of each. The institution of this system, as well as of other arrangements, is, in the passage cited, ascribed to David.

The prominence which the ritual receives in Ezekiel reaches its culmination in the Priestly Code, where the judicial functions of the priest, formerly much emphasized, have given way altogether to the ritualistic. To minister at the altar and to guard the sanctity of Israel, which means practically the sanctity of the sanctuary, constitute from this time on the priest’s exclusive office. For this purpose, it is pointed out, God chose Aaron and his sons, distinguishing them from the rest of the Levites, and bid them consecrate themselves to their office (comp. Ex. xxviii. 1, 41-43; xxix. 1, 30, 33, 37, 43-46; xxx. 20, 29 et seq.; Lev. i.-vii., xiii. et seq., xvii. 5 et seq.; Num. vi. 16 et seq., xvi. 5-11, xviii. 3-7; I Chron. xxiii. 13; II Chron. xxvi. 18). Any one not of priestly descent was forbidden, under penalty of death, to offer sacrifice, or even to approach the altar (Num. xvii. 1-5, xviii. 7). As the guardians of Israel’s sanctity the priests formed a holy order (comp. Lev. xxi. 6-8), and for the purpose of protecting them against all profanation and Levitical defilement they were hedged about with rules and prohibitions. They were forbidden to come in contact with dead bodies, except in the case of their nearest kin, nor were they permitted to perform the customary mourning rites (Lev. x. 6, xxi. 1-5; Ezek. xliv. 20, 25). They were not allowed to marry harlots, nor dishonored or divorced women (Lev. xxi. 7).They were required to abstain from wine and all strong drink while performing sacerdotal duties (Lev. x. 9; Ezek. xliv. 21). Any priest having incurred Levitical defilement was excluded, under penalty of death, from priestly service and from partaking of holy food during the time of his uncleanness (Lev. xxii. 2-7, 9; Ezek. xliv. 26 et seq.). If afflicted with any bodily blemish the priest was held permanently unfit for service; such a one was, however, permitted to eat of the holy food (Lev. xxi. 17-23).

A noteworthy feature of the post-exilic priestly system is the place which the high priest occupies in it, for which see High Priest.

Baudissin, Gesch. des Alttestamentlichen Priestertums, 1889;
Benzinger, Hebräische Archäologie, 1894, pp. 405-428;
Nowack. Lehrbuch der Hebräischen Archäogic. 1894, il. 87-130:
Wellhausen, Prolegomena zur Gesch. Isracls, 1899, pp. 118-165.
To Make Atonement.
—In Rabbinical Literature:
The status of the priesthood in later Judaism and the views that prevailed concerning it were in full accordance with the Priestly Code. Like the latter (comp.Ex. xxix. 42-46; Lev. ix. et seq.; xv. 15, 30-33; xvi.; Num. vi. 27; Zech. iii. 7; Mal. ii. 7), later Judaism saw in the sanctuary the manifestation of God’s presence among His people, and in the priest the vehicle of divine grace, the mediator through whose ministry the sins of the community, as of the individual, could be atoned for. In Yoma 39b and Lev. R. i. (where Zech. xi. 1 is taken as referring to the Temple) the name “Lebanon” (= “white one”) for the Temple is explained by the fact that through the Temple Israel is cleansed from its sins. That the chief purpose of altar and priesthood is to make atonement for, and effect the forgiveness of, sin is stated again and again in Talmud and Midrash (comp. Ber. 55a; Suk. 55b; Ket. 10b; Zeb. 85b; Lev. R. xvi. 2; Tan. to Ex. xxvii. 2; Yalḳ. ii. 565). Even the priestly garments were supposed to possess efficacy in atoning for sin (Zeb. 85b; Yalḳ. i. 108). According to the rabbinical decision, “the priests were the emissaries, not of the people, but of God”; hence, a person who had sworn that he would not accept a service from a priest might nevertheless employ him to offer sacrifices and might make atonement for sin through him (Yoma 19a; Ned. iv. 3; 35b; Ḳid. 23b).

Importance of Pedigree.
Later Judaism enforced rigidly the laws relating to the pedigrees of priests, and even established similar requirements for the women they married. Proof of a spotless pedigree was absolutely necessary for admission to priestly service, and any one unable beyond all doubt to establish it was excluded from the priesthood (comp. Ket. 13a, b, 14a, 23a, b, 27a, b; Ḳid. 73a, b; Maimonides, “Yad,” Issure Biah, xx. 2, 16; Shulḥan ‘Aruk, Eben ha-‘Ezer, 3, 6, 7). Unless a woman’s pedigree was known to be unimpeachable, a priest, before marrying her, was required to examine it for four generations on both sides, in case she was of priestly lineage; for five generations if she was not of priestly descent (Ḳid. iv. 4, 5; 77a, b; “Yad,” l.c. xix. 18; Eben ha-‘Ezer, 2, 3). How scrupulously such examinations were made may be seen from the observations of Josephus regarding this custom (“Contra Ap,” i., § 7). In addition to the persons enumerated in Lev. xxi. 7, the Talmudic law enjoined the priest even from marrying a ḥaluẓah (see ḤALIẒAH). In a dubious case of ḥaluẓah, however, the priest was not obliged to annul his marriage, as he was in the case of a woman excluded by the Levitical law; nor were the sons born of such a marriage debarred from the priesthood (comp. Yeb. vi. 2; 54a; Soṭah iv. 1; Ḳid. iv. 6; Sifra, Emor, i. 2; “Yad,” l.c. xvii. 1, 7; Eben ha-‘Ezer, 6, 1). Neither might a priest marry a proselyte or a freedwoman. Regarding a daughter of such persons, opinion in the Mishnah is divided as to whether or not it was necessary that one of the parents should be of Jewish descent. The decision of later authorities was that, in case both of the woman’s parents were proselytes or freed persons, a priest should not marry her, but if he had done so, then the marriage should be considered legitimate (Bik. i. 5; Yeb. vi. 5; 60a, 61a; Ḳid. iv. 7; 78b; “Yad,” l.c. xviii. 3, xix. 12; Eben ha-‘Ezer, 6, 8; 7, 21).

Contact with Dead Prohibited.
The Levitical law which forbids the priest to defile himself by coming in contact with a dead body is minutely defined in the Talmud on the basis of Num. xix. 11, 14-16. Not only is direct contact with the dead prohibited, but the priest is forbidden to enter any house or enclosure, or approach any spot, where is lying or is buried a dead body, or any part of a dead body—even a piece of the size of an olive—or blood to the amount of half a “log” (about a quarter of a liter); he is forbidden also to touch any one or anything that is unclean through contact with the dead (comp. Sifra, Emor, i. 1, ii. 1; Naz. vii. 2, 4; 42b, 43a, 47b, 48b, 56a, b; Yer. Naz. 56c, d; “Yad,” Bi’at ha-Miḳdash, iii. 13-15; ib. Ebel, iii.; Shulḥan ‘Aruk, Yoreh De’ah, 369, 371). In contradistinction to Lev. xxi. 2-4, the Talmudic law includes the wife among the persons of immediate relationship. It specifies, moreover, that it is the duty of the priest to defile himself for the sake of his deceased wife or, in fact, for any of his immediate kin, and that compulsion must be used in the case of any priest who refuses to do so, as in the case of the priest Joseph on the occasion of his wife’s death (Sifra, l.c.; M. Ḳ. 20b; Yeb. 22b, 90b; Naz. 47b, 48a, b; Zeb. 100a; “Yad,” Ebel, ii.; Yoreh De’ah, 373).

But even while occupied in burying a relative, the priest may not come in contact with other dead bodies (“Yad,” l.c. ii. 15; Yoreh De’ah, 373, 7). The Talmud prescribes, further, that if any priest, even the high priest, finds a corpse by the wayside, and there be no one in the vicinity who can be called upon to inter it, he himself must perform the burial: the technical term referring to such a case is “met miẓwah” (comp. Sifra, Emor, ii. 1; Naz. vii. 1; 43b, 47b, 48b; “Yad,” l.c. iii. 8; Yoreh De’ah, 374, 1, 2). Finally, the Talmud permits and indeed orders the priest to defile himself in the case of the death of a nasi; it relates that when Judah ha-Nasi died the priestly laws concerning defilement through contact with the dead were suspended for the day of his death (Yer. Ber. iii. 6a; Yer. Naz. vii. 56a, Ket. 103b; “Yad,” l.c. iii. 10; Yoreh De’ah, 374, 11).

Bodily Defects Incapacitate.
The Talmudic law also specifies minutely what constitutes a bodily defect sufficient to render the subject unfit for priestly service. Bek. vii. and Sifra, Emor, iii. enumerate 142 cases; whether the defect is permanent or only temporary is not taken into account (comp. Zeb. xii. 1; 102a, b; “Yad,” Bi’at ha-Miḳdash, vi.-viii.; Philo, “De Monarchia,” ii. 5; Josephus, “Ant.” iii. 12, § 2).

The division of the priests into twenty-four classes, mentioned in Chronicles, continued down to the destruction of the Second Temple, as statements to this effect by Josephus (“Ant.” vii. 14, § 7; “Vita,” § 1) and the Talmudic sources show. These divisions took turns in weekly service, changing every Sabbath, but on the festivals all twenty-four were present in the Temple and took part in the service. These twenty-four divisions or classes were subdivided, according to their numbers, into from five to nine smaller groups, each of which was assigned to service in turn. The main divisions were called “mishmarot,” the subdivisions “batte abot” (terms which in Chronicles are used interchangeably). There was a chief at the head of each main division, and also one at the head of each subdivision (Ta’an. ii. 6, 7; iv. 2; 27a, b; Yer. Ta’an. 68a; Tosef., Ta’an. ii.; Suk. v. 6-8; 25a, b, et al.; ‘Ar. 12b; Yoma iii. 9, iv. 1; Yer. Hor. iii.; 48b).

The Segan.
Besides the various chiefs, the Talmudic sources frequently mention also the “segan” as an official of high rank. As early as Tosef., Yoma, i. 6; Yoma 39a, Naz. 47b, and Soṭah 42a the view is found that the segan was appointed for the purpose of serving as substitute for the high priest on the Day of Atonement in case the high priest should incur Levitical defilement. Schürer (“Gesch.” 3d ed., ii. 265) rightly points out, however, that this view is erroneous, since, according to the statement in Yoma i. 1, it was customary every year, seven days before the Day of Atonement, to appoint a priest to perform the service on that day in case the high priest should become Levitically unclean; and there would have been no need for such an appointment if, in the person of the segan, a permanent provision existed for such an emergency. (Further reference to this custom is found in Yoma 12b; Tosef., Yoma, i.) Conclusive proof of Schürer’s argument may be found in the fact that in Sanh. 19a the priest appointed as the high priest’s potential substitute for the Day of Atonement is called “mashuaḥ she-‘abar” (anointed one that has been retired), and is clearly distinguished from the segan. The passage reads: “If the high priest offers consolation the segan and the mashuaḥ she-‘abar stand at his right hand, and the chief of the ‘bet ab,’ with the mourners and the rest of the people, at his left hand. . . . And if he receives consolation the segan stands at his right hand, and the chief of the bet ab, with all the people, at his left; the mashuaḥ she-‘abar, however, is not admitted for fear the high priest, in the excitement of his grief, might think that he looked with complacency on his bereavement.”

The name “mashuaḥ she-‘abar” is to be accounted for by the fact (stated in Tosef., Yoma, i.; Yer. Yoma i., 38a, and Yoma 12b, and illustrated by the case of Jose ben Illem) that a substitute who has actually taken the place of the high priest on the Day of Atonement may not thereafter perform the services of an ordinary priest; neither may he aspire to the high-priesthood. In the light of this statement it can readily be understood why Meg. i. 9 calls the temporary substitute of the high priest “Kohen she-‘abar.” The names “mashuaḥ she-‘abar” and “Kohen she-‘abar” are in themselves proof of Schürer’s assertion, inasmuch as the office of the segan was a permanent one. But apart from this negative evidence, which merely shows that the segan was not identical with the mashuaḥ she’abar, there is (contrary to Schürer, l.c. ii. 264) positive evidence in the Talmudic sources to show that his real office was identical with that of the latter. Thus, in the baraita Sanh. 19a, quoted above, the title “Segan” is used to designate the “memunneh” spoken of in the preceding mishnah (ii. 1), a circumstance which would point to the conclusion drawn by the Gemara (ib.) that the segan and the memunneh were identical. This conclusion is, in fact, corroborated by Mishnah Tamid, where the titles “segan” and “memunneh” are used interchangeably. There can be no doubt that in Mishnah Tamid iii. 1-3, v. 1-2, vi. 3, vii. 3 these titles refer to one and the same official, whose office is described in great detail—the office, namely, of superintendent of the whole Temple service. Note especially vi. 3 and vii. 3, which define the duty of the superintending priest when the high priest offers incense or sacrifice: in vi. 3 this official is called” memunneh”; in vii. 3, “Segan.”

It may logically be inferred from these passages that the duties ascribed to the segan on the Day of Atonement in Yoma iii. 9, iv. 1, vii. 1 were a regular part of his office as superintendent of the service. Indeed, this is borne out by Yer. Yoma iii., 41a, where, together with the Day of Atonement duties of the segan that are specified in the Mishnah, is mentioned that of waving a flag as a signal to the Levites to join in with their singing, the giving of which signal, according to Mishnah Tamid vii. 3, was a regular feature of the segan’s daily official routine. The fact that the segan had to act as superintendent of the service even on the Day of Atonement fully precludes the idea that he could ever have been appointed substitute for the high priest for that day.

Considering the importance of such a position of superintendence, some weight must be attached to the statement in Yer. Yoma (l.c.) that “no one was appointed high priest unless he had previously occupied the office of segan.” It substantiates, at least, the conclusion drawn by Schürer (ib.) from the fact that the segan invariably appears at the right hand of the high priest (comp. the baraita Sanh. 19a, quoted above)—the conclusion, namely, that the segan was the next in rank to the high priest. Schürer is probably correct, too, in pointing out (ib.) that the segan is identical with the στρατηγóς τοῦ ἱεροῡ, frequently mentioned by Josephus and in the New Testament.

Other Officials.
Other important officials were the “gizbarim” (treasurers), who had charge of the Temple property, and the “amarkelin” (a word of Persian origin,meaning “cashier”), who probably shared the duties of the gizbarim (comp. Josephus, “Ant.” xiv. 7, § 1; xv. 11, § 4; xviii. 4, § 3; Peah i. 6, ii. 8, iv. 8; Shek. ii. 1; v. 2, 6; Me’i. iii. 8; Men. viii. 2, 7; et al.). Yer. Sheḳ. v., 49c, mentions also the “ḳaṭolikin” (καθολικοι), placing them in rank before the amarkelin.

According to Talmudic law, the regulations demanding an unimpeachable pedigree and relating to Levitical defilement continued to be binding on the priest, even after the Temple had been destroyed, in order that he might be fit for priestly service when, on the advent of the Messiah, the Temple would be rebuilt and the service of the altar renewed. Any one not complying with these requirements is not allowed to give the priestly blessing, the pronouncing of which remained the duty of the priest, according to Talmudic law, even after the destruction of the Temple (see Blessing, Priestly). Talmudic law prescribes further that the honor of being first called upon for the reading of the Torah should belong to the priest (comp. “Yad,” Issure Biah, xx. 13; ib. Tefillah, xiv., xv.; Eben ha-‘Ezer, 3, 1; Oraḥ. Ḥayyim, 128; 135, 3, 4; Soṭah 38b; Giṭ. v. 8; see, however, Hor. iii. 8).

Schürer, Gesch. 3d ed., ii. 225-279;
Carpzow, Apparatus Historio-Criticus Antiquitatum Sacri Codicis;
Haneberg, Die Religiösen Altertümer der Bibel;
Lightfoot, Ministerium Templi Quale Erat Tempore Nostri Salvatoris;
Lundius. Die Alten Jüdischen Heiligtümer, Gottesdienste und Gewohnheiten, etc.:
Selden. De Successione in Pontificatum Ebrœorum;
Ugolini, Saccrdotium Hebraicum.

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Are You A Bearer of Light?

“Don’t participate in the fruitless works of darkness, but instead expose them.”
Ephesians 5:11

The Wicked World Dwells In Darkness Where Sin and Corruption Grow

The wicked seek shelter in darkness:

Job 24:13,15,17

” The wicked are those who rebel against the light. They do not recognize its ways or stay on its paths.”

“The adulterer’s eye watches for twilight, thinking: No eye will see me; he covers his face.”

“For the morning is like darkness to them. Surely they are familiar with the terrors of darkness!”

Because the wicked can successfully hide their plans and schemes from other humans, they foolishly believe that they can hide their activities from Almighty God.

Isaiah 29:15-16

“Woe to those who go to great lengths to hide their plans from the Lord. They do their works in darkness, and say, “Who sees us? Who knows us?” You have turned things around, as if the potter were the same as the clay.
How can what is made say about its maker, “He didn’t make me”? How can what is formed say about the one who formed it, “He doesn’t understand what he’s doing”?

The wicked have put their trust in their lying prophets and the false doctrines they delivered to them, promising them they will escape death and Hell.

Isaiah 28:15

” For you said, “We have cut a deal with Death, and we have made an agreement with Sheol; when the overwhelming scourge passes through, it will not touch us, because we have made falsehood our refuge and have hidden behind treachery.”

No place is concealed from God’s view nor knowledge nor the execution of His will

Psalms 139:7,11-12

“Where can I go to escape Your Spirit? Where can I flee from Your presence?”

“If I say, “Surely the darkness will hide me, and the light around me will be night”— even the darkness is not dark to You. The night shines like the day; darkness and light are alike to You.”

Jeremiah 23:24

“Can a man hide himself in secret places where I cannot see him?”—the Lord’s declaration. “Do I not fill the heavens and the earth?”—the Lord’s declaration.”

Jeremiah 16:17

“for My gaze takes in all their ways. They are not concealed from Me, and their guilt is not hidden from My sight.”

Revelation 6:15-17

“Then the kings of the earth, the nobles, the military commanders, the rich, the powerful, and every slave and free person hid in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains. And they said to the mountains and to the rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of the One seated on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb, because the great day of Their wrath has come! And who is able to stand?”

Light came into the world to exposed the darkness of the wicked

John 3:19-21

““This, then, is the judgment: The light has come into the world, and people loved darkness rather than the light because their deeds were evil. For everyone who practices wicked things hates the light and avoids it, so that his deeds may not be exposed. But anyone who lives by the truth comes to the light, so that his works may be shown to be accomplished by God.”

Are you actively involved exposing darkness?

Ephesians 5:11

“Don’t participate in the fruitless works of darkness, but instead expose them.”

This cannot be accomplished sitting silent avoiding a confrontation with evil people. The Lord mentions a particularly despicable group who fail in meeting their obligation by falling victims to fear at the End. This is what he says:

The victor will inherit these things, and I will be his God, and he will be My son. 8 But the cowards, unbelievers, vile, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars—their share will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death.” Revelation 21:7

The cowards the Lord speaks of are all who took an oath of dedication to him and then failed to live up to it out of fear of pain, loss, or death. Remember how cowardice gripped Peter at the time of Christ death?

These would sit quietly, out of view on the sideline not doing anything that might upset their life or cause attention to themselves as Peter did. Yet they foolishly expect to be rewarded for their cowardice. Not so according to the Lord.

Are you truly a bearer of the light of the Holy Spirit? Christ says, “By its fruit you will know a tree“.

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Was CT Russell (founder of Jehovah’s Witnesses) a Zionist?




Before Herzl, There Was Pastor Russell: A Neglected Chapter of Zionism

Years before Theodor Herzl proposed creating a Jewish state, Charles Taze Russell was traveling the world holding Jewish Mass Meetings, beginning in 1879, at which he urged Jews to find a national home in Eretz Israel

Russell was a Zionist, first publishing a public statement of support in 1879, sixteen years before Theodore Herzl’s book supporting a Jewish state in Palestine, and eighteen years before the first Zionist congress.

In 1889, Russell published his third work in the series Studies in the Scriptures, entitled Thy Kingdom Come. One of the chapters is entitled “The Restoration of Israel” and contains both scriptural prophecies and quotes from articles in the popular press about the nascent movement.

In that chapter Russell presents historic parallels which led him to expect that the time for Jews to begin returning to Palestine would be 1878… and heralding the decision by the British Government to support Jewish purchase of land in Palestine (under the terms of the Berlin Congress of Nations in that year) as a fulfillment of Bible prophecy. Petah Tikvah, the first modern Jewish settlement, was founded that year.

By the way, recent discoveries in Bible chronology have turned up a number of corroborating clarifications of Russell’s pioneering work.

Russell was not the first or the most famous pastor to support Zionism — Wesley had spoken of a restoration of the Jews in the late 1700s, and the Albury Prophetic Conference of 1829 had agreed upon the return of Jews to their homeland as a harbinger or even a trigger of their expected and desired return of Christ.

in my reading of the history, however, it seems clear to me that Russell stood out as unusual in one major respect — both then and now. Russell unambiguously proclaimed that Jews should not be proselytized to become Christians. To Russell and the movement of Christians he inaugurated, the Jews have their own destiny in the plans of God, apart from the invitation to become disciples of Jesus.

This reflects Russell’s view that Christianity in the current era is a high calling, offered by God to a limited number of people — not the only opportunity for life that the masses of mankind will have.

The main hope of life according to Russell will be the “highway of holiness” that Isaiah spoke of, which he claimed will be offered to all the people who have ever lived during Jesus’ thousand year reign as Messiah.

Russell expected the Jewish people to be among the first to get in step with the Messianic era, because that is what their customs and worship have taught them since the days of Moses:

“A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken…”

The “gospel” that has been forced upon Jews during the last two millennia by well-meaning but, I think, misinformed Christians has been an unfortunate assault upon the common sense and decency of Jewish people. It has threatened them with eternal torment, persecuted them with false reports of blood libels, forced them into ghettos and narrow settlements. 1492 was the year King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella sent Columbus in search of new lands they coud exploit — and the year all Jews were expelled from Spain, under pain of death or forced conversion to “Christianity.”

Russell taught that such mistreatment of Jews by “Christians” was the true meaning of the parable of “the Rich man and Lazarus” which mainstream Christians use to support their bogus ideas of a burning hell. The conscious torment of each living generation of the Jewish nation — coupled with their ability to observe, across the gulf that separated them from the comforts of the Gentile Christians who now occupied “Abraham’s bosom” — was the hell on earth which Russell taught was an allegorical prophecy of the painful national torture that Jews were subjected to during their years of exile in mystic Babylon — Christendom.

To many Jews, Christianity has from the beginning been offensive to every fiber of their being. When Jesus felt his crowds of followers becoming too big, he intentionally offended them by saying they must eat his flesh and drink his blood.

He seemed to relish offending the Jewish religious leaders of his day by healing on the Sabbath. He told his disciples to grab a handful of wheat from the fields as they passed on the Sabbath — enflaming the religious zeal of the most Orthodox Jews.

Jesus also allowed outwardly disreputable people to be prominent in his entourage — former prostitutes, former lepers, women who had been banned for uncleanness. A tax collector was appointed to his inner circle.

Jesus strode into the temple courtyard and in a most offensive way, disrupted the busy work of religious enterprise — despising the pattern of merchandise religion that Christians later perfected.

So from the Jewish perspective Jesus was a false prophet who was exposed by the Romans as an imposter, and not the real messiah who they all knew was supposed to defeat empires and set up a kingdom that would restore the entire world.

In the Apostle’s day the followers of Jesus seemed to attack and violate the laws of Moses. Then as the church grew it set up a counterfeit priesthood and illegitimate, non-Jerusalem based worship, similar to the high places of Baal in their own history. As Christianity descended into darker and darker practices and beliefs, its increasingly violent and hateful style became more and more repugnant to Jews — who as a result of their exile were shifting in the opposite direction — becoming more empathetic and less idolatrous.

By the time Christianity reached its zenith of power and privilege, Christmas Eve to many Jews had become the night their houses were burned or their synagogues desecrated. Easter was, to the Jews, the obviously pagan fertility ritual that counterfeits their reverent Passover celebration of independence from Egyptian paganism and slavery. Their own eyes could not see Jesus as a messenger of peace and brotherhood, but as a disgusting religious icon, an idol or graven image they were commanded to resist.

Russell preached that the “blindness” of Jews toward Jesus was God’s doing, and that God still loves them “for their fathers’ sakes.” Russell taught his Christian audiences that God has great things in store for the Jewish people in the near future, and that the time had already come for Jewish people to return to their ancestral homeland.

Russell also preached that Armageddon or the “day of vengeance” would be much more than a battle in Israel. It would be nothing less than a full trial of Christendom for all its sins of the last 2000 years — including its mistreatment of the Jews.

Taking the words of Paul in Romans 11 to heart, Russell predicted that the Jews would soon be received back into full fellowship with God — observing and accepting a leader who reminded them of Moses. And he most emphatically taught that their return to favor was not predicated upon acceptance of any form of Christianity.

Russell taught that all the ancient Jewish leaders will return from the grave — King David, Samuel, Deborah, Gideon and the others will, he predicted, lead the Jews back into the fullest harmony with God imaginable. Only then would they begin then to see aspects of their law which Jesus had fulfilled, and which their past prejudices and the providence of God had kept them from seeing.

Because Russell was so honoring of Jewish history and destiny, the American Zionist committee invited him to address the Jewish people in 1910. They rented New York’s largest meeting hall of the time, the Hippodrome, and asked him to address a Jewish audience on the topic “Zionism in Prophecy.”

Russell arrived with a small chorus of singers and addressed a packed auditorium of over 4000 people. Several newspapers published the full text of his hour-long speech — which received a standing ovation.

By the way, you do a disservice to history by including a false statement within your question. CT Russell did not found the Jehovah’s Witnesses. Based upon my own conversations with people who were personally acquainted with Russell and lived through that era, the JWs were the result of a hostile takeover of the movement he started by Joseph Rutherford, the attorney who wrote Russell’s will and usurped control of the seven-person committee he left in charge of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society when he died in 1916.

Here are some of the now-deceased people who I spoke with at length when I was much younger, who had first-hand knowledge:

Daniel Morehouse and his wife Nodie (who worked at the Brooklyn headquarters from 1914 until after Russell’s death, and helped prepare and present Russell’s Photo-drama of Creation.

Rose Hirsch (who worked at the Brooklyn HQ, and whose husband was one of the seven trustees named in Russell’s will).

Peter Kolliman, who was an active participant and volunteer from 1912 till the 1940s, first with Russell’s Watch Tower publishing house and then with the Dawn Bible Students Association. This was probably the largest group to which Bible students flocked when the JWs emerged.

Percy Reid of St. Louis, who was an early leader of another publishing house that promoted Russell’s original concepts after the JW takeover. It was called the Pastoral Bible Institute and, beginning in 1918 immediately after Rutherford’s usurpation of power, it published a magazine that is still going strong today: The Herald of Christ’s Kingdom.

Irene Greene, who as a young Christian in Columbus Ohio was present at the rally in a baseball stadium in the early 1930s where the new name Jehovah’s Witnesses was first introduced. (I’m guessing this was a rollout that occurred in many places across the country that year). My memory of that conversation was that the announcement occurred in about 1932 or 1933. Even the name was a usurpation, claiming for an ambitious but temporary Christian organization an honored reference to the Jewish people who God himself had decreed.

Let me summarize: Russell was a more prolific writer and preacher, and just as famous in his day as the late Billy Graham. Russell was a Zionist who left the Jews alone to focus on their restoration efforts, and he encouraged them not to fraternize much with Christians.

The publishing house he owned was never envisioned by him as a divine mouthpiece, only a proponent of ideas which were spreading among independent congregations of Christians who he thought of as refugees from the many sects of what he called “Babylon” — Christendom. He believed that real and true Christian brethren continued to be involved with all the denominations, but he encouraged his followers to reach out to them and try to let them know that a much happier, more inclusive redemptive plan was destined to bring the human race to a new era — the will of God being done both on earth and in heaven.

“Go, then, to all peoples everywhere and make them my disciples”

Do you spend all of your time preaching to fellow believers?

What was Christ’ final command?

Matthew 28: 19-20 King James Version

“Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen”.

Matthew 28: 19-20 Holman Christian Standard Bible

“Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe everything I have commanded you. And remember, I am with you always, to the end of the age.”

Matthew 28: 19-20 Good News Translation

“Go, then, to all people everywhere and make them my disciples: baptize them in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and teach them to obey everything I have commanded you. And I will be with you always, to the end of the age.”

Has this commandment been forgotten by many who claim to be His ministers? Have they begged off from true ministry?

Today there are many who profess to be disciples of Jesus Christ, and even to be his elect brothers, who have no share whatsoever in obeying this commandment.

You will find them speaking exclusively to fellow believers in special group discussions and forums on the internet. They chatter among themselves about all kinds to topics. But, if there is any preaching going on, isn’t that just as the expression goes “preaching to the choir”?

How can that satisfy the commission Jesus gave before He departed? The answer to that question is that it doesn’t.

Many have totally abandoned spreading the preaching and teaching of the good news of reconciliation with God through Christ in lieu of groups that are for the most part cliquish in their nature. The themes of their messages offer nothing to appeal to an unbeliever. They offer no message an unbeliever would grasp and understand

They seem quite content to chat among themselves until the End comes.

Jesus posed a question worth considering:

“The Lord answered, “Who, then, is the faithful and wise servant? He is the one that his master will put in charge, to run the household and give the other servants their share of the food at the proper time.” Luke 12:42 (GNT)

Obviously at the very least it would have to be an obedient servant do you not agree?

Could this servant be the type of person who gets a clear directive, but is arbitrary and will not obey?

What did Jesus say? Consider these verses from Matthew 25:

19 “After a long time the master of those servants came back and settled accounts with them. 20 The servant who had received five thousand coins came in and handed over the other five thousand. ‘You gave me five thousand coins, sir,’ he said. ‘Look! Here are another five thousand that I have earned.’ 21 ‘Well done, you good and faithful servant!’ said his master. ‘You have been faithful in managing small amounts, so I will put you in charge of large amounts. Come on in and share my happiness!’ 22 Then the servant who had been given two thousand coins came in and said, ‘You gave me two thousand coins, sir. Look! Here are another two thousand that I have earned.’ 23 ‘Well done, you good and faithful servant!’ said his master. ‘You have been faithful in managing small amounts, so I will put you in charge of large amounts. Come on in and share my happiness!’ 24 Then the servant who had received one thousand coins came in and said, ‘Sir, I know you are a hard man; you reap harvests where you did not plant, and you gather crops where you did not scatter seed. 25 I was afraid, so I went off and hid your money in the ground. Look! Here is what belongs to you.’ 26 ‘You bad and lazy servant!’ his master said. ‘You knew, did you, that I reap harvests where I did not plant, and gather crops where I did not scatter seed? 27 Well, then, you should have deposited my money in the bank, and I would have received it all back with interest when I returned. 28 Now, take the money away from him and give it to the one who has ten thousand coins. 29 For to every person who has something, even more will be given, and he will have more than enough; but the person who has nothing, even the little that he has will be taken away from him. 30 As for this useless servant—throw him outside in the darkness; there he will cry and gnash his teeth.’

Could this servant be the type of person who gets a clear directive, but is arbitrary and will not obey? According to the verses above, the answer is clearly ‘No’.

Paul posed a series of questions that those who have begged off from the true ministry in the name of Christ should consider:

“But how can they call on Him they have not believed in? And how can they believe without hearing about Him? And how can they hear without a preacher? 15 And how can they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: How beautiful are the feet of those who announce the gospel of good things!” Romans 10:14-15 (HCSB)

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What Are Angels? Why Were They Created?>>> Are They Nothing More Than Messengers?

God’s angel who was sent to protect Daniel

What Are Angels? Why Were They Created?

‘Malak’ is the original Semitic word translated in English as angel. Malak means “one who is sent”. In the translation over time to other languages, it became synonymous with a messenger….someone sent to deliver messages.

But the original word only infers ‘sent’ to perform ‘some’ task.

Is their service limited to delivering messages?

Rationally consider the following Scriptures:

Genesis 3

24 “So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.”

The first mention of angels in the Bible is not in the service of messengers but as guards.

Exodus 12: 29-30

29 “And it came to pass, that at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.”

30 “And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.”

This angel was not a messenger but was sent as a holy executioner.

Isaiah 37:36

36 “Then the angel of the Lord went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and five thousand (185,000): and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses.”

The angel mentioned here delivered death that night and not one message.

Daniel 6:22

22 “My God hath sent his angel, and hath shut the lions’ mouths, that they have not hurt me: forasmuch as before him innocency was found in me; and also before thee, O king, have I done no hurt.”

An angel was dispatch to protect faithful Daniel when he had been thrown into a den of lions. He didn’t come to talk to Daniel but to save him. He wasn’t sent to deliver a message.

The task the angels fulfill in service that are revealed in the Book of Revelation are added proof that angel fulfill a variety of service in God’s behalf. To over-emphasize that the word angel means ‘messenger’ is deliberately misleading a listener into believing that that is what an angel is and that is the only reason they exist.

The next time someone tells you angels are messengers educate them.

‘Angel’ means as the term ‘malak’ suggest; one who is or was sent to perform a task.

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The King Of The North>>>Whose Behavior Has Fit The Description?

The vast flow of US arms exports over 6 decades

The Ripple Effect

Prophecy’s effects can be compared to a stone dropped into the center of a pond. Visualize the concentric circles that form from the epicenter and spread out across the pond. Over time these rings cover the entire pond.
Each ring is an identical harmonic reproduction of the initial ring. So that no matter where you are positioned spatially in the pond, you see the same thing.

You can see prophecy’s fulfillment everywhere. But there is a critical ‘epicenter’ to it. These epicenters are circumstances involving ‘special’ judgements in addition to those common to all mankind.

Following are a few renderings of 2 Thessalonians 2:8 which reveals how the man of lawlessness is brought to an end.

2 Thessalonians 2:8

BBE And then will come the revelation of that evil one, whom the Lord Jesus will put to death with the breath of his mouth, and give to destruction by the revelation of his coming;

EasyEnglish Then people will see the man who completely refuses to obey God. But when the Lord Jesus will come, he will kill that man. Jesus will kill him with the words that Jesus speaks. Jesus will kill him with the very bright, powerful light that shines from Jesus himself.

“Then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord will destroy with the breath of his mouth, rendering him powerless by the manifestation of his coming.” ISV

“Then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will kill with the breath of his mouth, and destroy by the manifestation of his coming;” NHEB

The Easy English Bible gives the fullest interpretation as it points out how the Lord brings this “man of lawlessness” to his end. That is by revelation of the truth.

“Jesus will kill him with the words that Jesus speaks. Jesus will kill him with the very bright, powerful light that shines from Jesus himself.”

“Words” will kill the man of lawlessness. These are words that the Lord will provide.

We certainly shouldn’t have an expectation that we will hear His voice from Heaven speaking out audibly. Or at least not prior to His arrival at His second coming..

He speaks a present through his already written words and by his servants he has assigned to do so at this appointed time.

As now we live near the close of this period of time, and also we know that the “hour of test” must also occur before the end of this period, that the time has to be extremely short.

Before this, the man of lawlessness is to be killed.

Since Christ will judge angels and flesh, and both the living and all who have died, the application of Biblical prophecy has to be more far reaching than the activities of any singular person or group.

The Man Of Lawlessness Becomes Identifiable Over Time By Movement and Traits

Daniel’s prophecy concerning the end times reveals a wicked power who advances over the breadth of the Earth in a horn-like attack. (Daniel 8)

From the time of Alexander ‘the Great’, this ‘king’ , his clans, and his national groups have carried on a relentless assault the rest of humanity in a quest to rule as gods over the entire Earth and its inhabitants. Some today refer to this quest as “manifest destiny”….that they are destined by God to spread their ‘way of life’ which today includes democracy and capitalism across the Earth.

Daniel 8:1-12

8 “In the third year of King Belshazzar’s reign, I, Daniel, had a vision, after the one that had already appeared to me. 2 In my vision I saw myself in the citadel of Susa in the province of Elam; in the vision I was beside the Ulai Canal. 3 I looked up, and there before me was a ram with two horns, standing beside the canal, and the horns were long. One of the horns was longer than the other but grew up later. 4 I watched the ram as it charged toward the west and the north and the south. No animal could stand against it, and none could rescue from its power. It did as it pleased and became great.

5 As I was thinking about this, suddenly a goat with a prominent horn between its eyes came from the west, crossing the whole earth without touching the ground. 6 It came toward the two-horned ram I had seen standing beside the canal and charged at it in great rage. 7 I saw it attack the ram furiously, striking the ram and shattering its two horns. The ram was powerless to stand against it; the goat knocked it to the ground and trampled on it, and none could rescue the ram from its power. 8 The goat became very great, but at the height of its power the large horn was broken off, and in its place four prominent horns grew up toward the four winds of heaven.

9 Out of one of them came another horn, which started small but grew in power to the south and to the east and toward the Beautiful Land. 10 It grew until it reached the host of the heavens, and it threw some of the starry host down to the earth and trampled on them. 11 It set itself up to be as great as the commander of the army of the Lord; it took away the daily sacrifice from the Lord, and his sanctuary was thrown down. 12 Because of rebellion, the Lord’s people[a] and the daily sacrifice were given over to it. It prospered in everything it did, and truth was thrown to the ground.”

However, the king of the north has never been able to take possession of it all. Alexander ‘the Great’ fell short in India. The British could not maintain their hold over the Far East in the post-colonial era, and Hitler fell short of complete domination of the world as well.

Now at the end, comes the final horned thrust to capture the jewel in the crown that has eluded them for centuries…the Far East.

Verse 44 of Daniel 11 reveals God’s plan will stop the assault of this lawless man.

Daniel 11

36 “And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that is determined shall be done.

37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.

38 But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.

39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.

40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.

41 He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.

42 He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.

43 But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.

44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.

45 And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.”

Historical evidence has revealed beyond any doubt who this prophecy was pointing to. No other group comes close.

In the video below, watch the vast flow of US arms exports over 6 decades. It is a stunning time-lapse video demonstrates the massive flow of US weapons exports across the globe over the last 67 years, revealing some surprising recipients.

It also demonstrates clearly that the targeted area being encircled is the yet-to-be conquered Far East.

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Who are the “Chief Princes” Mentioned At Daniel 10:13?

As God was phasing out the old heavenly arrangement of things in which He was served by these seven angelic servants, He saw fit to give them to his son and entrust them into his service. Therefore in the Revelation he is seen holding them in his right hand as John envisions him in the Temple sanctuary.

Daniel 10:13

“But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia.”

The ‘chief’ or ‘principal’ angels referred to in the Book of Daniel are the original angels who serve directly before the throne of God.

These are mentioned in the Book of Revelation in chapter 8:
2″ And I saw the seven angels which stood before God; and to them were given seven trumpets.”

They include Gabriel and Michael who are both mentioned in the Bible.  There were a total of seven of these princely servant to begin with.  The Bible mentions two Books which are not contained within the Books we have available today. They both tell about these seven powerful angels by name and much more.

One is the Book of Jasher:

“And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.”  Joshua 10:13

The second is a Book of prophecy written by the man Enoch:

“And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints,”  Jude 14

Available text from Enoch’s writings go into detail about the existence of these seven angels and what transpired as result of the fall.

Jude obviously had information we don’t have access to today. The Bible does not contain the following account that Jude writes about:

“Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee.”

Another disciple observed : “Despite his great power, Michael is still in total submission to the Lord. His dependence on the Lord’s power is seen in Jude 1:9:

“But when the archangel Michael, contending with the devil, was disputing about the body of Moses, he did not presume to pronounce a blasphemous judgment, but said, ‘The Lord rebuke you.‘”

The righteous angels have a rank and are submissive to authority, and for this reason they are used as a picture of a wife’s submission to her husband.

The Bible tells us, “That is why a wife ought to have a symbol of authority on her head, because of the angels” (1 Corinthians 11:10). If you take into consideration the strength of Michael, the submission to God is all the more beautiful.”

Notice that Michael isn’t ‘lord’, but answers to the Lord.

Beyond these facts, the only begotten son of God was not a member of that group of seven angels. Satan however was an angel of that order.

That there were a group of angels that included Gabriel, Michael, and others is common knowledge and has been throughout human history.

The only begotten son of God, Christ, has always been set apart from all other beings and things. He is unlike any other since no other can claim to have begotten by God. He has no peers or peer group.

Was it that all the angels in Heaven were aware of this special son? It appears not.

If so, consider the scene recorded in the Book of Revelation in chapter 5 verses 1 through 4:

And I saw in the right hand of him that sat on the throne a book written within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals.

“2 And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof?

3 And no man in heaven, nor in earth, neither under the earth, was able to open the book, neither to look thereon.

4 And I wept much, because no man was found worthy to open and to read the book, neither to look thereon.”

John is not witnessing an earthly scene but one played out in Heaven right before the throne of God.

When this scene occurs all the angels are assembled before the throne of God in attendance.

When as verse two states the cry goes out to those in attendance, “Who is worthy to open the book and loose the seals thereof?”, there is silence for no one among them is worthy.

Ask: If all present during that vision scene were familiar with the chosen one (Christ), then why would there have been any uncertainty and silence from those in attendance when the strong angel ask his question? There could have only been one possible choice given all he had done. this is also true had they understood that the ‘chosen one’ would of course have to be the heir of the Kingdom. It was all to become his inheritance after all.

Christ does not approach the throne of God from the midst of the assembled group of angels, but is lead in and appears before the throne.

This is when the angelic body is introduced to the son of God and his identity becomes known to them.

Again, if Christ was well known, there would have been no question as to who was worthy. And if he was a member of an existing group, certainly they would have known he was the worthy one.

Jesus is the only begotten son of God.  Michael is as the Bible describes an archangel, one of the principal angels who served before God’s throne. These were the chief angels referred to in the Book of Daniel.

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